Problem: Let $A$ be a positive real number. What are the possible values of $$\sum_{j=0}^{\infty} x_j^2,$$ given that $x_0,x_1,\dots$ are positive numbers for which $$\sum_{j=0}^{\infty}=A?$$ Solution: The answer is $\boxed{(0,A^2)}$. \\ There are two things we need to prove: first, that the possible values of $\sum_{j=0}^{\infty} x_j^2$ must lie in the interval $(0,A^2)$, and second, all values in this interval can be achieved. \\ For our first problem, the values are obviously positive. Also, note that $$\sum_{j=0}^{\infty} \frac{x_j}{A}=1,$$ and because $x_j>0$, we must have $$0 < \frac{x_j}A < 1,$$ which implies that $$\left(\frac{x_j}A\right)^2 < \frac{x_j}A ,$$$$\implies \sum_{j=0}^{\infty}\left(\frac{x_j}A\right)^2 < \sum_{j=0}^{\infty}\left(\frac{x_j}A\right) = 1.$$Multiplying by $A^2$, we get $$\sum_{j=0}^{\infty}x_j^2 < A^2.$$ \\ Now, for the second part, let the sequence of $x_j$'s be a geometric sequence with ratio $r$. Then, we have $$\su