Showing posts from October, 2022

1998 USAMO #3

Problem : Let $a_0,a_1,\cdots ,a_n$ be numbers from the interval $(0,\pi/2)$ such that\[ \tan (a_0-\frac{\pi}{4})+ \tan (a_1-\frac{\pi}{4})+\cdots +\tan (a_n-\frac{\pi}{4})\geq n-1.  \]Prove that\[ \tan a_0\tan a_1 \cdots \tan a_n\geq n^{n+1}.  \]

2022 USEMO #3

Point $P$ lies in the interior of a triangle $ABC$. Lines $AP$, $BP$, and $CP$ meet the opposite sides of triangle $ABC$ at $A$', $B'$, and $C'$ respectively. Let $P_A$ the midpoint of the segment joining the incenters of triangles $BPC'$ and $CPB'$, and define points $P_B$ and $P_C$ analogously. Show that if \[ AB'+BC'+CA'=AC'+BA'+CB' \]then points $P,P_A,P_B,$ and $P_C$ are concyclic. 

2019 IMO SL #A5

Problem : Let $x_1, x_2, \dots, x_n$ be different real numbers. Prove that \[\sum_{1 \leqslant i \leqslant n} \prod_{j \neq i} \frac{1-x_{i} x_{j}}{x_{i}-x_{j}}=\left\{\begin{array}{ll} 0, & \text { if } n \text { is even; } \\ 1, & \text { if } n \text { is odd. } \end{array}\right.\] Solution 1 (induction) : We induct on $n$, and the base case is trivial. Now for any $n > 2,$ define the multivariable rational function$$\sum_{1 \leqslant i \leqslant n} \prod_{j \neq i} \frac{1-x_{i} x_{j}}{x_{i}-x_{j}} = A_n(x_1, \dots x_n)$$and the multivariable polynomial$$B_n(x_1, \dots x_n) = \prod_{i<j}(x_i-x_j)(A_n - (\text{n's remainder mod 2})).$$This polynomial has at most degree $\binom{n}{2} + (n-1).$ But for every $x_i,$ we know $x_i - 1$ and $x_i+1$ divide $B_n$ by the inductive hypothesis, as well as all the terms of the form $x_i-x_j.$ That yields $\binom{n}{2} + 2n$ terms dividing $B_n,$ more than its degree. So $B_n$ is a zero polynomial as desired. $\square$ Solutio

2019 ISL #C7

 There are 60 empty boxes $B_1,\ldots,B_{60}$ in a row on a table and an unlimited supply of pebbles. Given a positive integer $n$, Alice and Bob play the following game. In the first round, Alice takes $n$ pebbles and distributes them into the 60 boxes as she wishes. Each subsequent round consists of two steps: (a) Bob chooses an integer $k$ with $1\leq k\leq 59$ and splits the boxes into the two groups $B_1,\ldots,B_k$ and $B_{k+1},\ldots,B_{60}$. (b) Alice picks one of these two groups, adds one pebble to each box in that group, and removes one pebble from each box in the other group. Bob wins if, at the end of any round, some box contains no pebbles. Find the smallest $n$ such that Alice can prevent Bob from winning.

2019 IMC #3

Problem : Let $f:(-1,1)\to \mathbb{R}$ be a twice differentiable function such that $$2f’(x)+xf''(x)\geqslant 1 \quad \text{ for } x\in (-1,1).$$Prove that $$\int_{-1}^{1}xf(x)dx\geqslant \frac{1}{3}.$$ Solution 1 : The LHS of the original inequality looks like the result of an application of the product rule. Indeed, the derivative of $f'g$ is $g'f'+gf''$. We cannot make $g=x$ and $g'=2$, but we can multiply by $x$ to get $g=x^2, g'=2x$. Now to do this we need to be careful about the sign of $x$. So, suppose that $x > 0$. Then $2xf'(x)+x^2f''(x) \ge x$ and hence $(x^2f')' \ge x$ so that $x^2f'(x) \ge \frac{1}{2} x^2$ and hence $f'(x) \ge \frac{1}{2}$. Similarly, we know that $f'(x)\ge \frac{1}{2}$ for $x < 0$, so we have proved this for all $x$ (for $x=0$ by continuity or by just plugging in $x=0$ into the original inequality). The rest is easy. WLOG, assume that $f(0)=0$ since shifting $f$ by a constant changes

2012 IMO SL #G6

  Problem:  Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circumcenter $O$ and incenter $I$. The points $D,E$ and $F$ on the sides $BC,CA$ and $AB$ respectively are such that $BD+BF=CA$ and $CD+CE=AB$. The circumcircles of the triangles $BFD$ and $CDE$ intersect at $P \neq D$. Prove that $OP=OI$. Solution 1:  Let circle with radius $OI$ intersect $BI, CI$ at $S, T \ne I$ respectively. Let $H$ be the foot of $S$ to $AB$ and let $BI$ meet $(ABC)$ at $M \ne A.$ It's known that if any circle passing through $S,B$ intersects $BC,BA$ at $D',F'$ respectively then $BD'+BF' = 2BH.$ But$$BH = BS \cdot \cos \left(\frac{1}{2} \angle ABC \right) = IM \cdot \cos \left(\frac{1}{2} \angle ABC \right) = MA \cdot \cos \left(\frac{1}{2} \angle ABC \right) = \frac{1}{2}AC$$so in fact $BFSD$ cyclic, similarly $CDTE$ cyclic. Then$$\angle TPS = 360^\circ - \angle TPD - \angle SPD = \frac{1}{2} \angle ABC  + \frac{1}{2} \angle ACB = \angle TIS$$so $P$ lies on $(TIS)$ centered at $O,$ done. $\square$ Soluti