Showing posts with the label number theory

2017 IMO SL #N6

 Find the smallest positive integer $n$ or show no such $n$ exists, with the following property: there are infinitely many distinct $n$-tuples of positive rational numbers $(a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n)$ such that both $$a_1+a_2+\dots +a_n \quad \text{and} \quad \frac{1}{a_1} + \frac{1}{a_2} + \dots + \frac{1}{a_n}$$are integers.

2000 IMO SL #N4

  Find all triplets of positive integers $ (a,m,n)$ such that $ a^m + 1 \mid (a + 1)^n$.

2014 IMO SL #N3

For each positive integer $n$, the Bank of Cape Town issues coins of denomination $\frac1n$. Given a finite collection of such coins (of not necessarily different denominations) with total value at most most $99+\frac12$, prove that it is possible to split this collection into $100$ or fewer groups, such that each group has total value at most $1$.

2017 IMO SL #N2

Let $ p \geq 2$ be a prime number. Eduardo and Fernando play the following game making moves alternately: in each move, the current player chooses an index $i$ in the set $\{0,1,2,\ldots, p-1 \}$ that was not chosen before by either of the two players and then chooses an element $a_i$ from the set $\{0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9\}$. Eduardo has the first move. The game ends after all the indices have been chosen .Then the following number is computed: $$M=a_0+a_110+a_210^2+\cdots+a_{p-1}10^{p-1}= \sum_{i=0}^{p-1}a_i \cdot 10^i$$. The goal of Eduardo is to make $M$ divisible by $p$, and the goal of Fernando is to prevent this. Prove that Eduardo has a winning strategy. 

1992 IMO SL #6

Let $\,{\mathbb{R}}\,$ denote the set of all real numbers. Find all functions $\,f: {\mathbb{R}}\rightarrow {\mathbb{R}}\,$ such that\[ f\left( x^{2}+f(y)\right) =y+\left( f(x)\right) ^{2}\hspace{0.2in}\text{for all}\,x,y\in \mathbb{R}. \]

2010 IMO SL #N4

Let $a, b$ be integers, and let $P(x) = ax^3+bx.$ For any positive integer $n$ we say that the pair $(a,b)$ is $n$-good if $n | P(m)-P(k)$ implies $n | m - k$ for all integers $m, k.$ We say that $(a,b)$ is $very \ good$ if $(a,b)$ is $n$-good for infinitely many positive integers $n.$  (a) Find a pair $(a,b)$ which is 51-good, but not very good.  (b) Show that all 2010-good pairs are very good.

1985 IMO SL #11

Find a method by which one can compute the coefficients of $P(x) = x^6 + a_1x^5 + \cdots+  a_6$ from the roots of $P(x) = 0$ by performing not more than $15$ additions and $15$ multiplications.

1990 IMO SL #18

Let $ a, b \in \mathbb{N}$ with $ 1 \leq a \leq b,$ and $ M = \left[\frac {a + b}{2} \right]$. Define a function $ f: \mathbb{Z} \mapsto \mathbb{Z}$ by \[ f(n) = \begin{cases} n + a, & \text{if } n \leq M, \\ n - b, & \text{if } n >M. \end{cases} \]Let $ f^1(n) = f(n),$ $ f_{i + 1}(n) = f(f^i(n)),$ $ i = 1, 2, \ldots$ Find the smallest natural number $ k$ such that $ f^k(0) = 0$

2018 IMO SL #A1

Let $\mathbb{Q}_{>0}$ denote the set of all positive rational numbers. Determine all functions $f:\mathbb{Q}_{>0}\to \mathbb{Q}_{>0}$ satisfying$$f(x^2f(y)^2)=f(x)^2f(y)$$for all $x,y\in\mathbb{Q}_{>0}$

2003 USA TST #4

Let $\mathbb{N}$ denote the set of positive integers. Find all functions $f: \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N}$ such that\[ f(m+n)f(m-n) = f(m^2)  \]for $m,n \in \mathbb{N}$.

1999 Bulgaria National Olympiad #2

Let $\{a_n\}$ be a sequence of integers satisfying $(n-1)a_{n+1}=(n+1)a_n-2(n-1) \forall n\ge 1$. If $2000|a_{1999}$, find the smallest $n\ge 2$ such that $2000|a_n$.

2014 USAJMO #4

Let $b\geq 2$ be an integer, and let $s_b(n)$ denote the sum of the digits of $n$ when it is written in base $b$. Show that there are infinitely many positive integers that cannot be represented in the form $n+s_b(n)$, where $n$ is a positive integer.

1994 IMO SL #C3

Peter has three accounts in a bank, each with an integral number of dollars. He is only allowed to transfer money from one account to another so that the amount of money in the latter is doubled. Prove that Peter can always transfer all his money into two accounts. Can Peter always transfer all his money into one account?

2019 USAJMO #1

There are $a+b$ bowls arranged in a row, numbered $1$ through $a+b$, where $a$ and $b$ are given positive integers. Initially, each of the first $a$ bowls contains an apple, and each of the last $b$ bowls contains a pear. A legal move consists of moving an apple from bowl $i$ to bowl $i+1$ and a pear from bowl $j$ to bowl $j-1$, provided that the difference $i-j$ is even. We permit multiple fruits in the same bowl at the same time. The goal is to end up with the first $b$ bowls each containing a pear and the last $a$ bowls each containing an apple. Show that this is possible if and only if the product $ab$ is even.

2010 IMO SL #A5

Denote by $\mathbb{Q}^+$ the set of all positive rational numbers. Determine all functions $f : \mathbb{Q}^+ \mapsto \mathbb{Q}^+$ which satisfy the following equation for all $x, y \in \mathbb{Q}^+:$\[f\left( f(x)^2y \right) = x^3 f(xy).\]

2019 Math Prize for Girls Olympiad #1

Let $A_1$, $A_2$, $\ldots\,$, $A_n$ be finite sets. Prove that \[ \Bigl| \bigcup_{1 \le i \le n} A_i \Bigr| \ge \frac{1}{2} \sum_{1 \le i \le n} \left| A_i \right| - \frac{1}{6} \sum_{1 \le i < j \le n} \left| A_i \cap A_j \right| \, . \]Recall that if $S$ is a finite set, then its cardinality $|S|$ is the number of elements of $S$.

2000 IMO SL #N4

 Find all triplets of positive integers $ (a,m,n)$ such that $ a^m + 1 \mid (a + 1)^n$.

2009 JBMO Shortlist #A1

Determine all integers $a, b, c$ satisfying the identities $$a + b + c = 15$$  $$(a - 3)^3 + (b - 5)^3 + (c -7)^3 = 540.$$

2018 European Mathematical Cup Junior #2

Find all pairs $ (x; y) $ of positive integers such that $$xy | x^2 + 2y -1.$$

2001 IMO SL NT #5

Let $a > b > c > d$ be positive integers and suppose that\[ ac + bd = (b+d+a-c)(b+d-a+c).  \]Prove that $ab + cd$ is not prime.