### 1975 IMO SL #7

Prove that from $x + y = 1 \ (x, y \in \mathbb R)$ it follows that \[x^{m+1} \sum_{j=0}^n \binom{m+j}{j} y^j + y^{n+1} \sum_{i=0}^m \binom{n+i}{i} x^i = 1 \qquad (m, n = 0, 1, 2, \ldots ).\]

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This problem was requested to be solved by a user. If you would like to request a problem too, please use the form on the left menu of the blog. Misha rolls a standard, fair six-sided die until she rolls $1-2-3$ in that order on three consecutive rolls. The probability that she will roll the die an odd number of times is $\dfrac{m}{n}$ where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

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This problem was requested to be solved by a user. If you would like to request a problem too, please use the form on the left menu of the blog. Triangle $ABC$ has side lengths $AB=4$, $BC=5$, and $CA=6$. Points $D$ and $E$ are on ray $AB$ with $AB<AD<AE$. The point $F \neq C$ is a point of intersection of the circumcircles of $\triangle ACD$ and $\triangle EBC$ satisfying $DF=2$ and $EF=7$. Then $BE$ can be expressed as $\tfrac{a+b\sqrt{c}}{d}$, where $a$, $b$, $c$, and $d$ are positive integers such that $a$ and $d$ are relatively prime, and $c$ is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find $a+b+c+d$.

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Let $a, b$ be integers, and let $P(x) = ax^3+bx.$ For any positive integer $n$ we say that the pair $(a,b)$ is $n$-good if $n | P(m)-P(k)$ implies $n | m - k$ for all integers $m, k.$ We say that $(a,b)$ is $very \ good$ if $(a,b)$ is $n$-good for infinitely many positive integers $n.$ (a) Find a pair $(a,b)$ which is 51-good, but not very good. (b) Show that all 2010-good pairs are very good.

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Prove that there exists a positive constant $c$ such that the following statement is true: Consider an integer $n > 1$, and a set $\mathcal S$ of $n$ points in the plane such that the distance between any two different points in $\mathcal S$ is at least 1. It follows that there is a line $\ell$ separating $\mathcal S$ such that the distance from any point of $\mathcal S$ to $\ell$ is at least $cn^{-1/3}$. (A line $\ell$ separates a set of points S if some segment joining two points in $\mathcal S$ crosses $\ell$.) Suppose that among all projections of points in $\mathcal{S}$ onto some line $m$, the maximum possible distance between two consecutive projections is $\delta$. We need to prove $\delta \ge \Omega(n^{-1/3})$. At this point, define $A,B$ as the two farthest points in $\mathcal{S}$. So, all points lie in the intersections of the circles centered at $A,B$ with radius $AB \geq 1$. Choose chord $XY$ in circle $B$ where $XY \perp AB$ and $d(A, XY)=\frac{1}{2}$. Also, let $\mat

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Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle and let $M$ be the midpoint of $AC$. A circle $\omega$ passing through $B$ and $M$ meets the sides $AB$ and $BC$ at points $P$ and $Q$ respectively. Let $T$ be the point such that $BPTQ$ is a parallelogram. Suppose that $T$ lies on the circumcircle of $ABC$. Determine all possible values of $\frac{BT}{BM}$.

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Let $ \alpha < \frac {3 - \sqrt {5}}{2}$ be a positive real number. Prove that there exist positive integers $ n$ and $ p > \alpha \cdot 2^n$ for which one can select $ 2 \cdot p$ pairwise distinct subsets $ S_1, \ldots, S_p, T_1, \ldots, T_p$ of the set $ \{1,2, \ldots, n\}$ such that $ S_i \cap T_j \neq \emptyset$ for all $ 1 \leq i,j \leq p$.

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Let $\Gamma_1$, $\Gamma_2$, $\Gamma_3$, $\Gamma_4$ be distinct circles such that $\Gamma_1$, $\Gamma_3$ are externally tangent at $P$, and $\Gamma_2$, $\Gamma_4$ are externally tangent at the same point $P$. Suppose that $\Gamma_1$ and $\Gamma_2$; $\Gamma_2$ and $\Gamma_3$; $\Gamma_3$ and $\Gamma_4$; $\Gamma_4$ and $\Gamma_1$ meet at $A$, $B$, $C$, $D$, respectively, and that all these points are different from $P$. Prove that \[ \frac{AB\cdot BC}{AD\cdot DC}=\frac{PB^2}{PD^2}. \]

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I. Am. Completely. Shocked. I couldn't even think, in my dreams, for this blog to blow up so much. I'm glad to know that my solutions are helping people! Keep visiting this blog, more solutions are to come! As of now, I have no plans of closing this blog, and I plan to continue posting daily. Btw, I won't be posting much of these "X views" anymore, since they're getting so frequent lol. I'll only post at some major number of views, like 100K, 150K, 200K, etc.

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An isosceles trapezoid with bases $a$ and $c$ and altitude $h$ is given. a) On the axis of symmetry of this trapezoid, find all points $P$ such that both legs of the trapezoid subtend right angles at $P$; b) Calculate the distance of $p$ from either base; c) Determine under what conditions such points $P$ actually exist. Discuss various cases that might arise.

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Let $m$ be a positive integer, and consider a $m\times m$ checkerboard consisting of unit squares. At the centre of some of these unit squares there is an ant. At time $0$, each ant starts moving with speed $1$ parallel to some edge of the checkerboard. When two ants moving in the opposite directions meet, they both turn $90^{\circ}$ clockwise and continue moving with speed $1$. When more than $2$ ants meet, or when two ants moving in perpendicular directions meet, the ants continue moving in the same direction as before they met. When an ant reaches one of the edges of the checkerboard, it falls off and will not re-appear. Considering all possible starting positions, determine the latest possible moment at which the last ant falls off the checkerboard, or prove that such a moment does not necessarily exist.