2021 IMO SL #A1

Problem:  Let $n$ be a positive integer. Given is a subset $A$ of $\{0,1,...,5^n\}$ with $4n+2$ elements. Prove that there exist three elements $a<b<c$ from $A$ such that $c+2a>3b$. Solution:  Suppose for the sake of contradiction that $c+2a\le 3b$ for all $a,b,c\in A$ with $a<b<c$.  We claim that if the elements of $A$ are $s_1<s_2<\dots<s_{4n+2}$, then $$s_i\ge s_{4n+2}(1-(\tfrac{2}{3})^{i-1})$$ for all $i$. We use induction to prove this -- the base case is trivially true because $s_1\geq 0$. As for the inductive step, consider $s_k.$ Take $(a,b,c)=(s_{k-1},s_k,s_{4n+2})$; by our assumption, we have $$s_{4n+2}+2s_{k-1}\ge 3s_k.$$ Therefore, $$s_k\ge\frac{s_{4n+2}+2s_{k-1}}{3}\ge\frac{s_{4n+2}+2(s_{4n+2}(1-(\tfrac{2}{3})^{k-2}))}{3}=\frac{s_{4n+2}(3-2(\tfrac{2}{3})^{k-2})}{3}=s_{4n+2}(1-(\tfrac{2}{3})^{k-1}),$$ which completes the induction.  Now, using our claim, we have $$s_{4n+1}\ge s_{4n+2}(1-(\tfrac{2}{3})^{4n})=s_{4n+2}-(\tfrac{16}{81})^{n}s_{4n+2}>s_

2017 USAJMO #3

Let $ABC$ be an equilateral triangle, and point $P$ on its circumcircle. Let $PA$ and $BC$ intersect at $D$, $PB$ and $AC$ intersect at $E$, and $PC$ and $AB$ intersect at $F$. Prove that the area of $\triangle DEF$ is twice the area of $\triangle ABC$. Solution 1:  Note that $$\angle{DPF}=\angle{FPE}=\angle{EPD}=120^{\circ}.$$ Now, using the sin area formula, we get $$[DEF]=[DPF]+[FPE]+[EPD]=\frac{\sqrt{3}}{4}\left(DP \cdot FP+FP \cdot EP+EP \cdot DP\right).$$We also have that $$[ABC]=BC^2 \cdot \frac{\sqrt{3}}{4}.$$ So, it suffices to prove $$\frac{\sqrt{3}}{4}\left(DP \cdot FP+FP \cdot EP+EP \cdot DP\right)=2 \cdot \frac{BC^2\sqrt{3}}{4} \implies DP \cdot FP+FP \cdot EP+EP \cdot DP=2BC^2.$$By the Law of Cosines on $\triangle{BPC}$, we obtain $$BC^2=b^2+c^2-2 \cdot b \cdot c \cdot \cos{120^{\circ}}=b^2+c^2+bc,$$ and Ptolemy's Theorem on quadrilateral $ABPC$ gives$$AP \cdot BC=BP \cdot AC+CP \cdot AB \implies AP=b+c.$$From some angle chasing, we know that $\triangle{ACD} \sim \tri

2000 Putnam A1

Problem: Let $A$ be a positive real number. What are the possible values of $$\sum_{j=0}^{\infty} x_j^2,$$ given that $x_0,x_1,\dots$ are positive numbers for which $$\sum_{j=0}^{\infty}=A?$$ Solution:  The answer is $\boxed{(0,A^2)}$. \\ There are two things we need to prove: first, that the possible values of $\sum_{j=0}^{\infty} x_j^2$ must lie in the interval $(0,A^2)$, and second, all values in this interval can be achieved. \\ For our first problem, the values are obviously positive. Also, note that $$\sum_{j=0}^{\infty} \frac{x_j}{A}=1,$$ and because $x_j>0$, we must have $$0 <  \frac{x_j}A   < 1,$$ which implies that $$\left(\frac{x_j}A\right)^2   <  \frac{x_j}A  ,$$$$\implies \sum_{j=0}^{\infty}\left(\frac{x_j}A\right)^2   <  \sum_{j=0}^{\infty}\left(\frac{x_j}A\right)   = 1.$$Multiplying by $A^2$, we get $$\sum_{j=0}^{\infty}x_j^2 < A^2.$$ \\ Now, for the second part, let the sequence of $x_j$'s be a geometric sequence with ratio $r$. Then, we have $$\su

Occasional Putnam problems

Starting now, I will occasionally post Putnam problems on this blog. However, the main content will still be IMO Problems.  These problems will be under the tag #putnam.

2006 IMO #G3

Let $ ABCDE$ be a convex pentagon such that \[ \angle BAC = \angle CAD = \angle DAE\qquad \text{and}\qquad \angle ABC = \angle ACD = \angle ADE. \]The diagonals $BD$ and $CE$ meet at $P$. Prove that the line $AP$ bisects the side $CD$.

Problem request: 2022 AIME II #13

Hi everyone,  I hope you had a great summer!  I was not posting for about a month or so because not many people were viewing the blog in the summer.  I'm going to start to post frequently again, and for now I have a problem request I got a couple days ago.  There is a polynomial $P(x)$ with integer coefficients such that\[P(x)=\frac{(x^{2310}-1)^6}{(x^{105}-1)(x^{70}-1)(x^{42}-1)(x^{30}-1)}\]holds for every $0<x<1.$ Find the coefficient of $x^{2022}$ in $P(x)$.

2015 IMO SL #A1

 Suppose that a sequence $a_1,a_2,\ldots$ of positive real numbers satisfies\[a_{k+1}\geq\frac{ka_k}{a_k^2+(k-1)}\]for every positive integer $k$. Prove that $a_1+a_2+\ldots+a_n\geq n$ for every $n\geq2$.

2019 IMO SL #C1

 The infinite sequence $a_0,a _1, a_2, \dots$ of (not necessarily distinct) integers has the following properties: $0\le a_i \le i$ for all integers $i\ge 0$, and\[\binom{k}{a_0} + \binom{k}{a_1} + \dots + \binom{k}{a_k} = 2^k\]for all integers $k\ge 0$. Prove that all integers $N\ge 0$ occur in the sequence (that is, for all $N\ge 0$, there exists $i\ge 0$ with $a_i=N$).

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1995 IMO #2

 Let $ a$, $ b$, $ c$ be positive real numbers such that $ abc = 1$. Prove that \[ \frac {1}{a^{3}\left(b + c\right)} + \frac {1}{b^{3}\left(c + a\right)} + \frac {1}{c^{3}\left(a + b\right)}\geq \frac {3}{2}. \]

1993 IMO #1

 Let $n > 1$ be an integer and let $f(x) = x^n + 5 \cdot x^{n-1} + 3.$ Prove that there do not exist polynomials $g(x),h(x),$ each having integer coefficients and degree at least one, such that $f(x) = g(x) \cdot h(x).$ Solution 1 (overkill):  Since $5>1+3$, from Perron's Criterion this polynomial is irreducible over the integers as desired. Solution 2 (normal solution): Assume FTSOC that there do exist $g(x), h(x)$ such that $f(x)=g(x)\cdot h(x)$. Observe that there are no integer roots of $f(x)$ from the Rational Root Theorem. Thus, $g(x), h(x)$ cannot be linear, and their degree is greater than or equal to $2$. We have $g(0)h(0)=3$. WLOG $g(0)=1$. Let $r_1, r_2, \dots r_j \in\mathbb{C}$ be the roots of $g(x)$. We have $r_1r_2\dots r_n=\pm 1$. Multiplying the equalities $r_i^{n-1}(r_i+5)=-3$ for all $1\leq i\leq j$, we obtain\[\vert g(-5)\vert = \vert (r_1+5)(r_2+5)\dots (r_m+5)\vert = 3^m.\]But $g(-5)f(-5)=3$, contradiction.

Inequality problem I made

 Prove for all positive reals $a,b,c$, $$\sum_{cyc} \frac{a}{\sqrt{3ab+bc}} \ge \frac 32.$$ I'll wait for comments and will post the solution in 2 days! EDIT - Well now that it's been 3 days (oops i forgot to post), I'll show my solution now.  By Holder,$$\left( \sum_{cyc} \frac{a}{\sqrt{3ab+bc}} \right)^2 \left( \sum_{cyc} a(3ab+bc) \right) \ge (a+b+c)^3$$ So it suffices to show$$(a+b+c)^3 \ge \frac 94 \sum_{cyc} a(3ab+bc)$$ Expanding and cancelling terms, we wish to show$$f(a,b,c)=4\sum_{cyc} a^3 + 12\sum_{cyc} b^2a-15\sum_{cyc} a^2b-3abc\ge 0$$ Claim: $f(a,b,c) \le f(a+d, b+d, c+d)$ if $d>0$ Proof:$$f(a+d,b+d,c+d)-f(a,b,c) =d (4\sum_{cyc} 3a^2 + 12\sum_{cyc} (b^2+2ba) - 15\sum_{cyc} (a^2+2ba) - 3(ab+bc+ca)) $$ $$+d^2 (4\sum_{cyc} 3a + 12 \sum_{cyc} (2b+a) - 15\sum_{cyc} (2a+b) - 3(a+b+c)$$ The $d^2, d^3$ stuff cancel. So $f(a+d,b+d,c+d) - f(a,b,c) = \frac{9d}{2} \sum_{cyc} (a-b)^2 > 0$. Let $a=\min\{a,b,c\}$, then $f(a,a+b,a+c) \ge f(0,b,c)$. Let $x=\frac bc$, then

2001 IMO SL #A6

Last one. I promise.   Prove that for all positive real numbers $a,b,c$,\[ \frac{a}{\sqrt{a^2 + 8bc}} + \frac{b}{\sqrt{b^2 + 8ca}} + \frac{c}{\sqrt{c^2 + 8ab}} \geq 1.  \]

2014 IMO SL #C2

Since the last one was super easy, I have to do another one... right?  We have $2^m$ sheets of paper, with the number $1$ written on each of them. We perform the following operation. In every step we choose two distinct sheets; if the numbers on the two sheets are $a$ and $b$, then we erase these numbers and write the number $a + b$ on both sheets. Prove that after $m2^{m -1}$ steps, the sum of the numbers on all the sheets is at least $4^m$ .

2019 IMO SL #G1

 Let $ABC$ be a triangle. Circle $\Gamma$ passes through $A$, meets segments $AB$ and $AC$ again at points $D$ and $E$ respectively, and intersects segment $BC$ at $F$ and $G$ such that $F$ lies between $B$ and $G$. The tangent to circle $BDF$ at $F$ and the tangent to circle $CEG$ at $G$ meet at point $T$. Suppose that points $A$ and $T$ are distinct. Prove that line $AT$ is parallel to $BC$.